Case Interview 2021 – The Ultimate Guide for Your Case Prep

A case interview is a type of job interview in which the candidate must analyze and solve a problematic business scenario (“case study”). It is used to simulate the situation on-the-job and to find out if the respective candidate meets the necessary analytical and communications skills required for the profession. Case interviews are commonly and globally used during the selection processes at management consulting firms such as McKinsey, Boston Consulting Group (BCG), or Bain & Company. It is the most relevant part of the process for consulting jobs and they are usually based on projects that the hiring firm have delivered for a client. It is an exercise that requires a logical approach to finding the problem and appropriate solution.

Table of Contents

Case Interview Questions and Answers 

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What Is a Case Interview?

case interview is part of the job interview process in which you as the candidate have to analyze and solve a problematic business scenario while interacting with the interviewer. The case study is often based on a problem the interviewer has worked on in real life. This part of the interview is intended to be more of a dialogue. You will need to be proactive and ask questions when attempting to close in on the correct conclusion. Oftentimes the consultant will attempt to guide you in the correct direction by asking questions himself.

An example question might be:​ The CEO of Deutsche bank has become increasingly concerned about their declining profitability over the last 36 months and has asked you to determine the factors causing the decline as well as recommend a strategy to reverse this trend.

During the entire application process, you will partake in up to six case interviews in two rounds or more. This is dependent on the position you are applying for. Most case interviews have the same underlying structure. An individual case interview may take up to an hour and usually consists of four parts:

Case Interview Format
  • ~ 5 minutes: Introduction and small talk
  • ~ 15 minutes: Personal Fit Interview
  • ~ 30 minutes: Case Interview
  • ~ 5 minutes: Your questions to the interviewer

Who Uses Case Interviews and Why?

Case interviews have always been a part of management consulting interviews. Nowadays, also marketing, strategy, operations, or retail positions tend to use similar formats because they are a great tool to probe the quantitative and qualitative skills of an applicant. It allows interviewers to get a deeper insight into how you present yourself as a candidate and apply the limited amount of information given to you.

The reason for the prevalence of the case interview format in management consulting is that the topics and themes handled in most cases reflect conditions close to the reality of the day-to-day activities of a consultancy. It requires the applicant to ask the right questions, apply structured frameworks, and think outside-the-box. As a consultant you will spend a lot of time client facing and so soft skills are just as important as hard skills to the interviewer. The case interview allows hiring companies to ask the question "Would I be happy to put this candidate in front of a client?".​

Due to the scenario setup in a case interview it is also a test of general business acumen. Many consultant projects will be in industries where the consultants aren't experts, especially to junior consultants. This is normal, but to be effective as a consultant business acumen is an important foundation for consultants to maintain effective strategy recommendations. Companies pay consultants for their minds rather than their industry expertise.

Case Interview Skills

What Are the Skills Required in a Case Interview?

A case interview has no “correct” or “standard” answer. There are often many solutions to a single case and in the end, what counts is your train of thought and how you got to your solution. The interviewer will evaluate you across five main areas:

1) Problem-Solving Skills 

The interviewer will analyze your ability to identify problems, isolate causes, and prioritize issues. During a case interview, you will be presented with a wide range of relevant and irrelevant data pieces. You must know how to use this data to make your recommendations and you have to prove that you are able to construct a logical argumentation without rushing to conclusions based on insufficient evidence.

2) Creativity and Business Sense Skills 

As a consulting candidate, you should know the basic business concepts as well as show a certain amount of business sense and creativity. If the interviewer asks you to find innovative ideas to increase the profitability of a hotel chain, you will have to come up with a range of ideas that make business sense. You are not expected to have deep knowledge on the hospitality industry, but to be able to ask relevant and insightful questions on the aspects important for you to solve the client’s issue at hand.

3) Structure 

Maintaining a structure means that you solve the question with a clear step-by-step approach that you communicate actively towards your interviewer. A good structure is the most important part of a case interview as it is the underlying base of your whole approach and argumentation. It is also the main reason why candidates fail their case interviews. A common mistake that candidates make is that they try to apply standardized frameworks to any case they are given. Instead, you should solve each case by creating a framework specifically tailored to its needs – as you would do as a consultant on the job.

4) Math Skills 

As a consultant, part of your job is number crunching and interpreting data. Therefore, it is important that you have a good feeling for numbers and have great mental math skills. You should be able to perform simple calculations in your sleep.

5) Communication Skills 

In times of digitalization, soft skills become more and more important for management consultants. On the job, you will be in contact with high-level CEOs, clients, partners, and colleagues. Strong communication is crucial for you to get your work done efficiently. Thus, your interviewer will pay close attention to the way you communicate and present yourself during your conversation. Always be professional, answer concisely, and communicate the key message first (see Pyramid Principle).

What Are the Differences Between …?

First and Second Round Interviews 

First round Second round
Format Identical Identical
Seniority of the interviewer Associates or Engagement Managers (up to 4 years of consulting experience) Partners (more than 10 years of consulting experience)
Difficulty Lower Higher
Importance Lower Higher
First round Second round
Format Identical Identical
Seniority of the interviewer Associates or Engagement Managers (up to 4 years of consulting experience) Partners (more than 10 years of consulting experience)
Difficulty Lower Higher
Importance Lower Higher

While the format of the first and second-round interviews stays the same, the seniority level of the interviewer differs. The person interviewing you in the first round is usually more junior having up to four years of consulting experience (Associates or Engagement Managers). The second round is led by Partners who have more than ten years of experience and tend to drill you to understand how you cope with challenges. Therefore, second rounds are perceived as more difficult by candidates. Since partners have a stronger voice when discussing an applicant, your performance during the second round of case interviews carries also more weight. For more information on the different positions, please read McKinsey Hierarchy: The Different Position Levels.

Candidate- and Interviewer-Led Case Interviews

Candidate-led Interviewer-led
Type of question(s) Very general initial question or no question at all (just broad description of a situation) Very specific questions throughout the interview
Data Data and information are mostly provided at your request A lot of data will be given throughout the case, e.g. tables or graphs
Company Most consulting firms Commonly used at McKinsey
Candidate-led Interviewer-led
Type of question(s) Very general initial question or no question at all (just broad description of a situation) Very specific questions throughout the interview
Data Data and information are mostly provided at your request A lot of data will be given throughout the case, e.g. tables or graphs
Company Most consulting firms Commonly used at McKinsey

In candidate-led cases the interviewer expects the candidate to lead him/her through the case. As a candidate, you can do so by asking relevant questions, and by developing and testing your hypotheses. Candidate-led cases are the most common types of cases. You will encounter them at the majority of the big consulting firms such as BCG, Bain, and occasionally at McKinsey.

Interviewer-led cases are most frequently used at McKinsey. As the title suggests, the interviewer’s guidance through the case interview is firmer.

You can find more information on the two different interview styles in our BootCamp article: Interviewer-Led vs. Candidate-Led.

Case Interview Examples from McKinsey, BCG, Bain and Other Top Consulting Firms

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In the following, you can find some examples of initial case interview questions:

McKinsey Case Interview Examples

BCG Case Interview Examples

Bain Case Interview Examples

Oliver Wyman Case Interview Examples

OC&C Case Interview Examples

Deloitte Case Interview Examples

Kearney Case Interview Examples

Strategy& Case Interview Examples

LEK Case Interview Examples​

Roland Berger Case Interview Examples

Practice More Cases Now!

You can find more than 160 case studies including cases from real companies and our consulting coaches in our Case Library!

Case Interview Frameworks 

Case Interview Frameworks

There is no magic formula that can be applied to every case but there are frameworks and methods that can be learnt; with practice you can ensure you are able to answer any case that you come up against.​

Anyone that has started delving into case interviews will likely have come across the frameworks designed by Victor Cheng. These are effective frameworks that have been adapted from widely published frameworks such as porters five forces. These can generally be applied to most case studies and learning them should definitely feature in your preparation. ​

Most firms are wise to these frameworks now and will even mark you down for applying one blindly. They want to see you think on your feet rather than apply a learned response. Using these frameworks are a great foundation that you can build upon, sometimes just changing the headings is enough to show you are able to create a bespoke solution.​

Types of Frameworks

There are three key framework types that can help tackle the toughest of case interviews. Whilst it is possible to learn particular frameworks prior to interviews, using frameworks from memory can result in being penalised by the interviewer. Deploying one of the following framework types with bespoke parameters is all that is required to develop an exceptional answer.​

The three framework types are; bucket, issue tree and matrix. All three allow for a methodical approach but are more effective when used to answer different types of questions.​

Issue tree: Great for profitability questions and any market sizing elements. Each ‘root’ of the tree allows for isolation of the problem and clear analysis. Often this is used in conjunction with a bucket framework.​

Matrix: Usually taking the form of a table but sometimes a pair of axis (BCG matrix). This framework is great when having to draw comparisons such as in competitor analysis or M&A suitability. The key is to use only the minimum necessary parameters in order to make a clean and simple comparison.​

Bucket: The most commonly used framework, it is very good for finding the root cause and developing a good idea of the bigger picture. Laying this framework out at the start also provides a checklist to work through which should prevent any unexpected mental blocks.​​


Five Key Frameworks

1) Profitability Framework​

This framework takes the form of an issue tree (sometimes referred to as a logic tree), it isolates the clients profitability problem into its key components. Following its branches, it is easy to identify where the issue lies and visualise where it fits into the bigger picture. The branches of this issue tree satisfy the MECE principle and therefore, if followed correctly, it should lead you to the cause.​

Often a case will require you to identify the root cause of an issue and then subsequently recommend solutions. In this scenario it is likely that a bucket framework will be required for the solution section.​

A profitability question will normally contain a sentence such as “PepsiCo has experienced declining profits” and therefore should be easily recognisable. Any case involving profits or one of its components (revenues and costs) will require a profitability framework.

profitability framework

Three equations to learn:​

1.     Profits = revenue – costs

2.     Revenue = units x price

3.     Costs = Variable costs + Fixed costs​

Profits = revenue – costs

This is the overarching equation that you are looking at but as always you must dig deeper into each component of the equation to find the crux of the issue.​

Revenue = units x price

Units can be increased by increasing the number of customers buying the current products (usually sales & marketing) or by increasing the number of products purchased by the current customer base (upselling).​

Increasing the price of a product is usually the quickest way to increase profits but this will effect the number of units that can be sold at that price, the magnitude of the effect will depend on the elasticity of demand and alternatives available to the consumer.

Costs = variable costs + fixed costs

To increase profits variable costs can be reduced by reducing the costs of inputs per unit. Increasing buying power or increasing efficiency on a per unit basis, such as automating steps of the manufacturing process, are ways of achieving this.​

Fixed costs can be reduced by removing unnecessary costs or by maximising the efficiency of current resources. Relocating the office to a cheaper location is an example of reducing fixed costs directly and increasing manufacturing production to 100% from 80% capacity would reduce the fixed cost per unit.​


2) General Framework

Developed on a framework made popular by Victor Cheng, this general purpose framework is capable of being adapted to the majority of case interview questions. This framework can be an alternative to the growth and market entry frameworks below if you are short of preparation time and cannot learn all the suggested frameworks.​

This case interview framework primarily serves as a checklist to ensure you cover all the relevant elements in the case. It is still important to remain disciplined and methodical by exhausting each point before moving onto the next.

general framework

a) Consumer:​

Useful mnemonic: Whales Wave With Police Constables​

Who – the demographic of the customer base e.g age, gender, individuals, businesses etc.

What – the products they are buying and reason for buying this product e.g stapler to help organise paperwork

Where – the location of the customer base e.g UK, Europe, global

Price – the prices that customers have been paying

Consumer risk – how concentrated are these customers, what effect will losing certain customers have on total revenues? (Usually fewer customers = higher risk)​


b) Client:​

Useful mnemonic: Every Dog Is Four​

Expertise – What the client is capable of and where their limitations are e.g great at manufacturing clothes cheaply but bad at luxury design?

Distribution channels – How is the client getting their product in front of customers? e.g wholesale, retail, direct to consumer, e-commerce etc.

Intangibles – does the client possess anything intangible that may effect the strategic decision? such as strong brand recognition or intellectual property.

Financial Situation – what financial resources does the client have to make the necessary investments or absorb the cost if the project fails?


c) Product:​

Useful mnemonic: Why Eight Children Started Laughing​

What – the details of the product the client sells

Elasticity of demand – how much of a necessity is the product to consumers? For example, petrol has high elasticity of demand for those with petrol cars it’s a necessity.

Compliments – are there any existing compliments to the product? e.g a phone case compliments a phone

Substitutes – are there any indirect competitors (especially emerging ones) such as tablets were to the laptop market (different products competing for the same consumers).

Lifecycle – how long does the product last? When will consumers be purchasing again? E.g a sandwich may have a lifecycle of 24 hours but a car more like 5 years.


d) Market:​

Useful mnemonic: My Children Tried Saying Rebellious​

Market share – the breakdown of competitors and their respective market shares of the target market.

Competitor observations – the competitors response to the same situation or anything notable in how they differ from the client.

Threat of new entrants – what is going to prevent another entrant to the market and what effect would this have?

Supplier risk – how concentrated are the suppliers, what effect would losing the current supplier have? (usually few suppliers = higher risk)

Regulations – are there any regulations that have or will have an effect on the client?​​


3) Pricing Framework​

Whilst pricing cases are less common its sensible to know at least the basics of pricing strategies. Without the basics it would be easy to flunk the case unnecessarily. The three common pricing strategies are cost-based, value-based and competitor-based.​

Cost based pricing: The addition of a target profit margin to the full unit cost.

Value based pricing: The value that the product provides to the consumer. Usually worked out via a cost saving, additional benefits over and above existing products or similar.

Competitor based pricing: Taken from what competitors are charging and what this product offers in comparison.

pricing framework


4) Market entry framework​

This market entry case interview framework is a development of the general framework, it places more emphasis on the strategy of understanding the target market and market capture. It is still possible to answer these questions with the general framework but it is likely to convey a lack of originality to the interviewer.​

Market entry questions usually explicitly state the intentions to enter a new market such as “Bosch is looking to enter the South American market”, making them easily recognisable.

market entry framework

a) Market:​

Useful mnemonic: Small Childish People Prefer Marrying Red-heads​

Size – what is the size of the target market?

Customers - who are the customers and what are their needs and preferences?

Product types – what products is the market receptive too? Do changes need to be made to existing products?

Profitability – are the current players in the market profitable and by how much?

Market share – what is the current market structure of its participants?

Regulations – are there any regulations that could effect the client from successfully entering?


b) Financials:​

Useful mnemonic: Fighting Is Overly Exuberant​

Financial situation – what financial resources does the client have to make the necessary investments or absorb the cost if the project fails.

Investment required – to enter the market what initial costs are there? E.g building of manufacturing facilities.

Ongoing costs – what costs will be incurred following the initial investment of entering?

Expected revenue & ROI – what is the expected return from entering the market?


c) Client capabilities:​

Useful mnemonic: Children Eat Children Maltesers​

Expertise – what the client is capable of and wher are their limitations? e.g great at manufacturing clothes cheaply but bad at luxury design.

Entry experience – has the client entered a market before?

Market entrants – has anyone entered the market before? If so, does the client have the same capabilities?


d) Entry strategy:​

Useful mnemonic: Tall People Try Oranges​

Timing – when is the best time to enter?

Pilot – will a pilot be used (99% yes) and what size will it be? Who will participate?

Type – how will the expansion be executed? Self-built, M&A, Joint venture?

Operation location – will the new operation be run from head office or the new location?​


5) Growth strategy​

This growth framework is an alternative to using a combination of the profitability and general frameworks. It simplifies the question of growth nicely by segmenting the problem into internal and external factors.​

During a growth strategy case it is important to remain pragmatic. It is easy to get carried away with elaborate ideas such as ‘build an app’ but hard to offer sensible ideas with real potential for the client and their current operations. This isn’t to say you should not offer all of the ideas in the beginning but then choose which ones you would recommend they explore further based on the situation in front of you. This is a good chance to show good business acumen.

growth framework

a) Internal​​

Current situation - what is the financial health, growth and profitability of the company today?

Drivers of financial performance - for this particular company what impacts profitability the most?


b) External​

Industry - what is going on in the industry? (market share, growth rates, new entrants)

Customers - who are the customers and what have their historical buying trends been?

Competitors - who are they and what have they been doing? How have they grown themselves?


The Best Frameworks When Solving Cases 

A framework may help you to solve the business problem in your case interview in a more structured and concise way. You should know the most common types of cases in order to determine which might be a suitable framework you can apply. Our coaches Guennael and Vlad explain their approaches:

Ex-MBB, Experienced Hire; I will teach you not only the how, but also the why of case interviews

What does a framework really have to do? Basically, 3 things:

First, be MECE (Mutually Exclusive, Collectively Exhaustive); Second, help you go through the case in a structured and methodical way to not only allow you find the best answer; Third, convince your interviewer that your success is repeatable and that you will crack this case and the next and the next.

Back when I was prepping for my BCG interview, I ended up falling back on just two frameworks, which I'd then tweak to fit the actual case: First, a version of the profitability model (Profit = Revenue - Cost, and Revenue = Price x Quantity); Second, a basic version of (Product, Price, Client, Competition, Company). Are these 2 frameworks optimal in every instance? No, they are not. Did they do the trick? I have used them in the 10+ practice cases with former BCGers, as well as in my 5 BCG cases... and I got in, so there's that :) I would even argue that every case can be solved by using either or both of these frameworks. Learn them, keep them in your back pocket, and be ready to use them. If you find a better one, great! But I'd rather you started with an "ok" framework and focused on solving the problem than spending 30 seconds at the beginning of the case to find the "perfect" framework, failed, and found yourself having to think on the fly as your start the solving process.

McKinsey / Accenture Alum / Got all BIG3 offers / Harvard Business School

There is no one-fits-all structure. You should have some patterns in mind for specific case types, however, you should change them depending on the:

  • Objective
  • Additional details of the case
  • Industry
  • Etc

Below you can find a list of the most common case types and some high-level recommendations on structuring:

  • Market sizing - structuring from the supply or demand side. Structuring using a formula or using an issue tree
  • Profitability - basic profitability framework. Remember about different revenue streams and product mix
  • Market context cases (Market Entry, New product, Acquisition, etc). Always start with the big picture "market". Finish with something the specific strategy to answer the objective of the case (e.g. "Entry strategy" - for market entry. "Exit Strategy" for PE case. "Go-to-market strategy" for a new product case). Structure it as if you are defining the work streams for the real project.
  • Operational math problem (e.g. Should we increase the speed of an elevator or just buy a second one? How should we reduce the queues? Etc.) - Structuring as a process/value chain, with inflows, operations, and outflows
  • Cost-cutting - I provided the recommendations on structuring it:


  • What is the cost composition and what are the biggest costs
  • Benchmarking of the biggest costs to find the improvement potential
  • Process improvements to meet the benchmarks
  • Costs and benefits of the proposed initiatives

The key concepts that you have to learn:

  • Internal / external benchmarking
  • Idle time
  • Core processes (usually are optimized) and the supporting processes (usually are cut)
  • Math structures (Frequency of operations * time per operation)
  • Other useful structures (e.g. people - process - technology)
  • Valuation - Purely financial structure with cash flows, growth rate, WACC / hurdle rate, etc.
  • Synergies - revenue synergies (price, qty, mix) and cost synergies (value chain).
  • Social/economics cases (e.g. How to improve the quality of life in the city? How to increase the revenues of the museum?) - huge variability. Practice 3-5 social cases before the interview

Besides that, there is a bunch of useful frameworks that you can apply in the middle of the case to find the root cause of a problem. E.g.

  • People - Process - Technologies
  • Capacity - Utilization - Output rate
  • Product - Distribution - Marketing - Price
  • Value-based pricing - competitive pricing - cost-based pricing
  • etc.

You will learn these frameworks while solving the cases. It's useful to have a bunch of them in mind to be able to identify the root-cause quickly.

How You Should (Not) Use a Framework

With frameworks, you are structured in every case. They give you a helping hand and guide you like a red thread through your case.  However, you should not be too fixated on specific frameworks. A framework should always be adapted to the respective situation. Our coach Sidi explains why:

McKinsey Senior EM & BCG Consultant | Interviewer at McK & BCG for 7 years | Coached 300+ candidates secure MBB offers

You can (and should) get acquainted with all of these frameworks. But you should NOT use them as blueprints to structure your approach towards ANY given case! One big misconception that I, unfortunately, see with many many candidates needs to be called out again and again:

Structure DOES NOT equal frameworks!

The different frameworks that you can find in pertinent case literature provide a very good basic toolbox in terms of which areas to look into for certain types of problems. However, they are very poor regarding HOW TO APPROACH a case and HOW TO DRAFT A ROADMAP for solving the case. This approach and roadmap need to be rooted in a rigorous and specific logic. Unfortunately, the "framework learning philosophy" brought forward by, e.g., Case in Point, is the very reason why an overwhelming majority of candidates will not get an offer.

By and large, most (or probably all) casebooks on the market are teaching a fundamentally flawed way how to think about business/strategy / organizational problems! A framework as such is worth nothing if it is not embedded into the specific context of the situation! This means each element that you want to scrutinize ("building blocks" of the framework so to speak) needs to clearly relate to the question that you want to address! This principle should form the basis of any structure.

This is why you ALWAYS start from the specific question that you want to answer! From there, you define the criterion or criteria that need to be met to answer this core question in one way or another.

In 95% of cases, value creation will be the central element. Ultimately, this is nothing else than profit generation over a specific time frame. You then draw a driver tree for profitability to isolate the numerical drivers for your solution. And then, only after you have drawn out the driver tree, you can map out the relevant qualitative "framework elements" to the sub-branches. This approach, visualized by means of a rigorous driver tree, is much much clearer than any framework you will find in any case book. And, contrary to such frameworks, which are hanging in the air and do not logically relate back to the specific question, this is a bulletproof approach when done rigorously.

The caveat is: this requires time and qualified coaching to internalize. But ultimately, this is how consultants think about problems - how can we optimize for value creation?

How to Develop Your Own Framework in 4 Steps 

In order to address unique issues in case interviews, it is important to develop your own frameworks. Our expert Benjamin gives you tips on how to do it:

ex-Manager - Natural and challenging teacher - Taylor case solving, no framework

1. (almost) Never use a standard framework taken from the books. Strategy consulting is about helping clients facing unique issues with a tailored answer. Forcing your approach in a standard framework is unlikely to be relevant


2. Project yourself in your client's shoes and show empathy for its problems. By doing so it will be much easier for you to understand what are the key topics to cover to formulate a recommendation and make sure you don't forget anything. I always ask myself "what would I do if this was my business and my own problem? What do I need to know/understand to make a decision ?"


3. Make sure every topic you want to cover is relevant for the final recommendation. A simple check is to ask yourself "If I spend time on this specific topic, and get some answers to my questions (ex. market sizing, competition, etc.), will this bring useful element for the final recommendation given my client's problematics"? If the answer is no, then you should drop this sub-issue.


4. Practice a lot, with any daily case you can set up on your own. The above tips are taken from my own experience doing my best to build MECE structures, but keep in mind that it takes a lot of practice to achieve a satisfying performance here. I have developed an exercise called structuring drills, that focus your effort on learning to build a structure. This is usually very appreciated by candidates.

Case Interview Preparation: 9 Tips for a Successful Case Prep 

1. Learn the theory

By reading this article, you have already taken the first step of getting to know what case interviews are all about. Well done! You can now proceed by learning the theory you need to know to solve them. In general, you should learn how to:

In our BootCamp, you can find all the necessary basics.

2. Gradually develop your business intuition

As you need to have a good business sense to successfully pass your case interview, you should dedicate some time before to gradually build up your business intuition. The earlier you start doing this, the easier it will come to you. All you have to do is make it a habit of regularly reading business publications or magazines. You can choose new insights by McKinsey, Bain and BCG or find other sources that appeal to you. While you do that, try to develop a basic knowledge of business, strategy and industries, such as retail, airlines, telecom, banking, natural resources and tech.

3. Bring your mental math up to speed

All case interviews involve doing math without a calculator which is why brushing up your math skills should be a constant part of your daily prep plan. Practice until you are a hundred percent comfortable doing basic additions, subtractions, divisions, multiplications and growth rate calculations in your head. Read our article on Fast Math and make use of our mental math tool in order to practice your efficiency. This will greatly ease the pressure if confronted with a math problem in your interview.

Knowing the shortcuts for a wide range of calculations will help you simplify math problems. For example, break down complex math problems into multiple smaller operations:

97 x 53

= (100 - 3) x (50 + 3)

= 5000 + 300 - 150 - 9

= 5141


4. Practice makes perfect 

Take a look at our vast Case Library with which you’ll be prepared for all possible case types. Our case collection includes cases which have been used in case interviews in the past. Solving cases on your own can give you a first feeling for them, but the only way to improve the skills you need to pass your interview is to put yourself in a case interview situation. Find a few outstanding candidates you can practice with and practice cases on a regular basis. The more perspectives you can get, the better. Feedback will help you improve. 

On PrepLounge, the world’s largest case interview community awaits you. Simply schedule or accept a mock interview with another candidate on our Meeting Board! Here is how it works:

  1. Schedule: After you and your case partner have confirmed the mock interview on the Meeting Board, your meeting is set and should be visible on your dashboard.
  2. Communication: We recommend you to directly get in touch with your case partner to confirm your method of communication during the interview (e.g. Skype) and case preferences.
  3. Interview: During the back-to-back meeting you will take turns with your case partner in order to play both interviewer and interviewee roles. Don’t neglect the part of the session where you play the interviewer role. It will help you notice points of importance and adapt your approach accordingly.
  4. Case: There will be two PrepLounge cases randomly selected by default, but you can also change them and pick one of our other 150+ cases or use your own case.
  5. Feedback: This is the most important part of your mock interview as it helps you to improve your case performance. Please give valuable feedback to your case partner. You would want them to do the same!

5. Get support from experts 

To make your case interview preparation as effective as possible, we recommend you to also invest in coaching sessions with experienced top consultants. Our experience shows that this will be worth it, as it significantly increases your chance of getting your dream job offer (by four to be exact). Our experts know exactly what interviewers want and can work with you on every aspect of your case performance, whether it is structure, personal fit, confidence or communication. They can even give you valuable networking tips and help you getting a referral.

We offer you a transparent list of all experts, including their professional and educational backgrounds, top skills, individual approaches, reviews and recommendation rates. This allows you to individually choose the perfect experts for your coaching sessions. You may also benefit from our CoachingPlus Package that comes with an overall discount.

6. Learn and keep track of your progress 

You can do as many cases as you like, but if you do not learn from them, you will not going to improve your case performance. This is why you should do the following: At the end of each case that you solve, whether it is on your own, with a case partner or expert, write down in your own words what mistakes you have made and what you learned. After a few days, redo the case and apply your learnings to ensure that you are making progress. Keeping track of your improvements will keep you motivated and make sure that you don’t repeat the same mistakes.

7. Don’t forget about the personal fit

It doesn’t matter how much you ace the case, but if you are not a personal fit to the company, you will not get the job offer. After all, consulting is a people’s business, that includes teamwork and spending a lot of time with your colleagues. In order to ace the personal fit part of the interview, it is important that you understand what any interviewer is looking for in a candidate to decide that he or she is a personal fit. Typically, the interviewer has three primary questions in mind.

Then, you have to learn how to convey to the interviewer that you comply with what he or she is looking for. Practice your answers to personal fit questions with other candidates or experts:

  • Why management consulting?
  • Why company x?
  • Why should we hire you?
  • Tell me about yourself!
  • Give me an example of a time that you have led a group to achieve a difficult goal!
  • Find more Stress Questions

8. Practice confidence 

The more you practice, the more confident you will automatically feel. However, feeling confident is not equal seeming confident. Sometimes you can come across as insecure without even noticing and this can be due to minor communication style habits. Therefore, you should ask your PrepLounge case partner or expert to take your verbal and non-verbal communication into account and to give you feedback on your level of confidence or insecurity. Try to focus on the following aspects during your practice:

  1. Sound of your voice. A monotone voice or speaking too fast gives an impression of insecurity and a poor communication style. To avoid that, you can listen to podcasts with great speakers for about 30 minutes to one hour per day. After a couple of days, you will start to speak in a similar manner, as you will absorb their communication style.
  2. Smile. Smiling can be a powerful element to show that you enjoy the interview (and interviewer) and are not afraid. You can force smiles (obviously not too much) in case you get feedback that you seem too serious.
  3. Eye contact. You should do not need to constantly look the interviewer in the eyes, but you should not look away when he or she asks you something and you should not stare, either.
  4. Ability to break the ice. Confident people are not afraid to start small talks with interviewers from the beginning. Keeping silence create less connection and may be considered a sign of lack of confidence.
  5. Posture. You should try to keep straight in the chair most of the time. Leaning too much towards the interviewer can be seen as a lack of confidence.

9. Take breaks 

In total you should prepare for well over 50 hours in an up to 6-week time period, practicing on a daily basis. This can be exhausting, and we know that a lot of candidates struggle with lack of motivation and focus, especially after an intense period of case prep. This is usually because they forgot to implement regular breaks in their prep plan. Professional athletes will always take time to rest to give their muscles time to regenerate, and so should you for your brain muscle. A good strategy is to develop an evening and morning routine that gives you time to relax and maximizes your energy level for the prep during the day. Here are some examples of what you can do:

  • 15-20 minutes of exercise in the morning or evening
  • A cold shower in the morning
  • Meditation or writing a journal
  • Define three important things to do for the next day and allocate the time for all activities while doing the most important ones first
  • No social media one hour after you wake up and before you go to sleep
  • Get enough sleep (at least 7 hours)
  • Take breaks between each case or intense case practice session and do something totally different (e.g. workout, play video games)

How to Solve a Case Study in 10 Steps [Infographic]

10 Steps to Crack the Case Interview Infographic

Step 1: Listen actively and take notes. Write down every piece of information, especially numerical data.

Step 2: Restate the question. Pause, paraphrase, and make sure you understand the problem statement by confirming with the interviewer.

Step 3: Clarify the objectives and identify the problem. Ask specific questions and double-check on objectives. Make sure you completely understand the problem.

Step 4: Write out your structure. Ask your interviewer for a minute to prepare your structure and organize your notes. Identify your case type and use an issue tree to customize your structure. The branches of your issue tree should be MECE.

Step 5: State your hypothesis. Now that you have set up the issue tree, your task is to test each branch to see if it is the root cause of the problem. Where to begin? A hypothesis based on an educated guess helps here.  (e.g. "Since you have mentioned that revenues are more or less flat, my hypothesis is that the problem is mostly driven by the cost side of the business. If it is okay with you, I will start by […]")

Step 6: Think out loud. Sharing your thoughts allows the interviewer to interact. Refine or rebuild your hypothesis as you find out more.

Step 7: Gather more data in order to test your hypothesis. Proactively ask for relevant data and always segment it (e.g. using the ABC analysis). Try to evaluate whether trends have been company-specific or industry-wide.

Step 8: Dig deeper while staying structured (MECE!) throughout the case. Always refer to the structure you have set up at the beginning of the case but be flexible as the case evolves. If you conclude that your hypothesis is false, eliminate that branch and go to the next one. Summarize findings when switching major branches. If your test confirms your hypothesis, go deeper into that branch, and drill down to the lower levels until you identify all proven root-causes.

Step 9: Choose a recommendation and use the Pyramid Principle to structure your conclusion. Ask for a minute to gather your thoughts and then state your recommendation. You need to deliver a one minute, top-down, concise, structured, clear, and fact-based summary of your findings.

Step 10: Stand by your conclusion. Your interviewer will likely challenge your recommendation (either to see if you can handle pressure or to assess if you really believe in what you are saying).

Case Interview Secrets: 13 Final Tips for Your Actual Case Interview 

1. Focus on the task at hand 

Don’t think too much about the approach your interviewer is taking. It should not matter much if the conversation is interviewer- or candidate-led. If you go into your interview with a profound understanding of how to handle even a difficult case, the format of the interview should not be an issue. Keep a cool head and structure your thoughts.

2. Ask the right questions 

At the beginning of the case, your interviewer will present you with the situation of the client. Don’t rush into the analysis without developing a deep understanding of the problem first. Ask your interviewer questions to clarify the case. This is expected behavior that also takes place later with the client. Make sure you understand what the business model and your objective in the respective case are (regarding both money and the timeline). If there are any other possible limitations you are unsure about, ask your interviewer in a concise way. Asking unnecessary questions will raise doubts about your ability to work efficiently under pressure.

3. Buy time with repetitions 

A common trick consultants use is the repeating of facts or overall goals. By doing this you are showing a fundamental comprehension of the case and are emitting an aura of control, gradually heading towards a solution. This technique can give you more time to think. Articulating the facts of the case can also be a source of clarity and allow you to form solutions more quickly.

4. Only form a hypothesis with sufficient information 

Do not state a hypothesis at the beginning, a stage in which you may still have incomplete information. Get a good sense of the case’s environment and ask sensible follow-up questions. Only then frame a structure and formulate a hypothesis.

5. Utilize data for your analysis 

Taking wild guesses is a death sentence for your case interview. Make sure your claims are backed up by the facts and remain calm when presented with new information. Consultancies will closely observe how you make use of new data and incorporate it into your hypothesis.

6. Take clear notes 

Taking structured notes is a highly underrated skill when dealing with a case. Making sure your notes are coherent and clear will make your thoughts easy to navigate and ensure you do not lose your footing during the interview.

  • Place your sheet horizontally to maximize your space and jot down the case’s key question on the left side of the page. This way you will never lose sight of the main objective. The remaining portion will be dedicated to the issue tree, with your hypothesis included above the issue tree.
  • Make sure that you highlight key pieces of information that add substance to your hypothesis.
  • When it comes to calculations, use a separate page but practice having it organized in case you need to go back through your assumptions or calculations.
  • Try to limit the number of pages you use to a maximum of three sheets. Otherwise, you will stress yourself out while trying to find what you are looking for.

7. Structure is key 

The most important aspect of a case interview is having a good structure. You can structure your case by following these four steps:

  • Craft an issue tree as the overall foundation for your structure. This is a customizable framework used to analyze the root causes of problems in a case. It helps you to break a complex problem down into its components.
  • Make sure that your issue tree is MECE to avoid inefficient dependencies between branches that will slow down your analysis. MECE is a way of segmenting information into sub-elements that are mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive. 
  • Prioritize and concentrate on high impact issues of your issue tree that will create value for your client. Always make sure you explain the reasons behind your choices to the interviewer.
  • Use the Pyramid Principle to structure your conclusion, a three-step structure to present your synthesis in an effective and convincing manner. First, state the recommendation (What?). Second, provide three reasons supported by data (Why?). Third, provide information on how to implement the recommendation (How?). 

8. Don't force-fit frameworks

Standard frameworks can be a source of inspiration but should never be force-fitted to a case. They are very stiff and do not allow room for customization. If you use pre-defined frameworks, you run the risk of missing important elements of the specific problem you are trying to solve. A consultant would not just force-fit frameworks to their specific client’s problem, so you should not do this in your case interview, either. Each case is unique and requires an individually customized framework that is MECE as well as adapted to the problem you are trying to solve, the company, and the industry.

9. Don’t panic if you get stuck 

If you ever get stuck, don’t freak out – it happens. What counts is how you deal with the situation. Here is what you can do:

  1. Take a deep breath or a sip of water if you have a glass of water nearby.
  2. Take a moment to grasp the big picture, to recap what you have learned so far and what you still need to find out to address the main question at hand.
  3. Outline how these sub-questions can be answered, and what kind of data or information you will need to do that.
  4. Double-check whether data or information provided by the interviewer at an earlier stage is now getting new relevance.
  5. Think out loud and take the interviewer along with your thinking process. If you are puzzled by some obvious contradiction, actively discuss this with your interviewer. Oftentimes an interviewer will wait for you to explicitly verbalize your confusion before gently guiding you.

10. Sometimes there is no clear answer 

Oftentimes a case interview has no “correct” or “standard” answer. The case may encompass you exploring the issues and walking down several paths. There are often many solutions to a single case that may differ from the interviewer’s expectations. In the end, what counts is your train of thought and how you got to your solution. You are not expected to know everything about business but demonstrate a logical judgment and a good approach to solve problems.

Nevertheless, you should always give a clear recommendation at the end of the interview when the interviewer will ask for your conclusion. The trick is to use supporting arguments based on what you have learned during the analysis, to point out limitations, and to also highlight additional areas to explore to confirm that your current understanding is the right one.

11. Engage the interviewer 

The interview should be a dialogue, so make sure to engage the interviewer and demonstrate not only your business judgment but also your communication and people skills. This gives the first insight into how you might interact with future clients and colleagues. How can you do that?

  • Explain. Share your thought process with the interviewer and always let them know what your next steps are.
  • Listen. During your case interview, the interviewer will usually give you hints and steer you in a direction. Notice that! If they ask a specific question, e.g. “Name three points about…”, answering in two or five points will mean that you didn’t pay attention.
  • Ask questions. Create a discussion, initiate small talk, and use your chance to make a positive connection with the interviewer, especially at the end of every interview when you get to ask final questions. Find a point in common and try to stand out. Here is a list of the best questions to ask at the end of an interview.  

12. Be confident 

You don’t necessarily need to be extroverted to be a top management consultant, but you need to be confident. Consulting is a people job as much as it is an analytical job. It is important for the client to feel that you know what you are doing. Thus, this is something the interviewer will take into consideration. Here are five things you can do during the interview to come across as more confident:

  • Try to enjoy the interview by focusing on the challenge, the satisfaction it brings you when you solve the case, and the joy of sharing your life experiences with someone else. If you have fun, chances are high that the interviewer has fun, as well.
  • Find your own style and don’t try to pretend to be someone that you are not. It is fine if you are not the most outgoing person. Just be genuine!
  • Sit up straight, but don’t be too stiff. Push your back against the back of the seat and don’t just sit on the edge of the chair.
  • Make eye contact, but don’t stare, either.
  • Speak in a clear, calm, and unrushed manner. Don't mumble or whisper but equally don't shout. Think before you speak!

13. When in doubt, reschedule 

If you’re not feeling confident about your chances, don’t hesitate to reschedule. If you take this course of action, take a few things into consideration. Make sure to suggest an alternative day and avoid rescheduling multiple times at all costs. The consultancy will be grateful for you to suggest an immediate alternative. Try to be transparent as to why you are rescheduling without going too deeply into details. However, rescheduling should only be used as a last resort.

PrepLounge: The Key to Your Success 

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To become the best, you must learn from the best. That is exactly what PrepLounge can offer you. The vast PrepLounge community makes it easy to find case partners with the same ambitions and goals as you. Whether you are looking for a professional case coach or other aspiring consultants, you will have no problem finding case partners in the build-up to your interview. Our PrepLounge coaches – from Bain to McKinsey – are uniquely qualified to provide you with insights into the mastery of a case interview.

Apart from case partners from every imaginable background, PrepLounge provides a colossal collection of online resources to give you the best preparation leading up to your case interview. We will provide you with questions and answers to the most important consulting case types and share in-depth knowledge for the best possible case interview preparation. You will be able to find case partners to practice online and always be on top of the latest insights and news regarding consulting jobs and top consulting firms.

As a PrepLounge member, you will receive access to all these perks. PrepLounge will accompany you all the way from your application through to your contract negotiation. You strongly diminish your chance of success without sufficient preparation. Invest in your future and give yourself the best chance at acing your case interview! Exchange your experience with peers from all around the world in our Consulting Q&A. Join our case interview community today and embark on your journey into consulting!

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