No. And in most jurisdictions they are not allowed to do so. But they might do so indirectly during the background check. There, a service provider will reach out to your current & previous employers to confirm the hard facts on your CV.
The background check will happen after you get an offer and you'll need to sgive them permission to do that. Note that if the conclusion is that you have provided incorrect information on your CV (either never worked at the companies you stated or in different roles), they have the right to revoke the offer.