You definitely first need to wait for the reply – if you have been waiting for too long now (>2 weeks), just contact the HR and ask them about the status.
If you get rejected you need to wait for at least a year to reapply, no matter the office and geography. During this time you need to gather additional experiences, which would be impressive enough to get you invited again, for example:
- prestigious internship or a job at a big corporate
- cool start-up experience
- some impressive social engagement
- getting a new degree
- anything else which is equally impressive
In my experience, even getting referral through your contacts doesn't speed it up – you would still need to wait for a year. However, one thing which can help if you are lucky is events – see what events are there in your region and try to apply for those. Events have a different recruiting funnel vs regular recruiting and it might be that you can slip through and get invited to the event and then, during the event, to the interview