The answer is yes and no.
Cases are mini projects. Frameworks are mini project plans. Of course that explains the different timelines. That said, even on a large project, you're expected to have a viable framework/approach within a few hours and iterate through it in the first few days.
It's really hard to explain this in writing, but, essentially, everything you learn/practice in a case is representative to some degree of what you'll do on the job (that's why it exists!). That said, you're expected to do different things to different degrees.
For me, the biggest commonalities were 1) Always having to have a structure/framework and a way of organizing thoughts and 2) Never really understanding what you're talking about on a deeper level, but having to figure it out as you go!
In terms of getting ready for real life cases, I love using case learnings as an analogy:
1) Understand the context/prompt (what role are you in, what company, who's watching, etc.)
2) Understand the objective (what, specifically, is expected from you...both day to day, and in your overall career progression)
3) Quickly process information, and focus on what's important - Take a lot of information and the unknown, find the most logical path, and focus on that.
4) Be comfortable with the unknown, and learn to brainstorm - think/speak like an expert without being one
In summary, there will always be a flood of information, expectations, competition etc. and not enough time. Find out which ones matter when. (i.e. be visibile and focus efforts on the things that people care about)